Posts Tagged ‘LICSW’

Milton H. Erickson Unpublished manuscript, 1936. Estimated reading time: 6 minutes, 42 seconds.

An admonition from William Alanson White, M.D., then Superintendent of St. Elizabeth’s Hospital, was given to this writer early in his psychiatric career, and a year or so later he was again given the same admonition by Adolf Meyer,

M.D. Both strongly advised the writer never to refuse to consult with a patient. A single interview graciously granted during which the patient’s story was listened to attentively, while not especially remunerative, had often permitted them to encounter many unusual instances of psychopathology and to achieve, in many cases, astonishingly effective results. These results had sometimes proved to be far better than the doctors had considered possible at the time of the interview, even if long-term therapy could have been instituted. They likened such instances to the processes of behavior wherein “love at first sight” has drastically and positively altered the lives of various individuals. One such historical example was the schoolteacher who thought it wrong for an adult man making his living as a tailor (Andrew Johnson) to be so uneducated. The events that unfolded began with teaching and led to love, marriage, a law degree, a judgeship, and eventually the presidency of the United States.

Adolf Meyer particularly stressed the utility of hypnosis in eliciting the potentialities of these transient patients and urged this writer to see such patients for both the educational values of the experience and the possibility of effecting unexpected results. Throughout the passing years the writer has conducted many “one-shot” interviews and sometimes as much as 20 years later has received an appreciative letter or a personal visit confirming the therapeutic impact of the brief encounter.

One such case is as follows: In 1936 the author lectured to his first class of medical students at the Wayne State University College of Medicine. During one of the last two lectures of the year the subject of hypnosis was discussed. One of the students hostilely and aggressively interrupted the lecture to denounce hypnosis as a hoax and challenged the author to hypnotize him. He proceeded to berate the author; one of his classmates who was well known to the author rushed up and quietly explained that no notice should be given to the student’s misconduct. He was a known sufferer of migraine headaches, which developed unexpectedly; the headaches were always preceded by an outburst, as had just occurred; this behavior was merely the prodomes of a migraine headache, which would last for one to three days; and finally, such outbursts would occur in the most unexpected of situations—on the street, in the classroom, at parties, football games, etc.

After the outburst the student would slowly become flushed of face and neck, followed shortly by projectile vomiting, and culminating in a violent, incapacitating headache of perhaps several days’ duration. He had been examined by many competent physicians and had almost been refused admission to the medical school. So far no medication or treatment had been found for his malady. (Several of the rest of the class members confirmed this account of the student’s history.)

Within 10 minutes the student apologized for his conduct, declared that he was in the process of developing a migraine headache for which nothing could be done, in that about 15 or 20 minutes he would begin vomiting; after that happened, could he and a friend be excused so that he could be taken home. He also explained that his emotional outburst was a part of the aura. He was still getting angrier within himself, but he wanted to stay at the lecture as long as possible, since past experience had taught him how to judge his condition. Consent was given, but a challenge was issued that he might try hypnosis, since nothing else had worked. He bristled at this suggestion, but suddenly said, “Well, I’ve got nothing to lose but my breakfast, so go ahead with your silly hypnosis.”

He was asked to take a seat in front of the class, facing the author and with his back to the audience. Slowly it was explained that he was to rotate his chair (it was a four-legged chair) bit by bit until he had made a complete turn of 360 degrees. His hostile manner and attitude suggested the inadvisability of attempting any routine traditional technique.

Additionally, such a technique as moving his chair in a circle as he sat in it would be utterly incomprehensible to him as well as a difficult task. Yet, by so doing, he would be caught in the situation of actually participating with the author in a joint undertaking.

Thus, he would validate by his own actions the idea that he was going into a trance.

As he gradually rotated his chair, the author explained to the class that the subject would do this task slowly, that each little movement would become slower and more difficult, that there was no hurry, no rush, that the subject could take his time and ought to, that each time he moved his chair a little, he would feel increasing fatigue and sleepiness, that the chair would seem to get more and more difficult to move, that his efforts would increasingly become less and less effective, and that shortly his eyes would close, he would take a deep breath, he would give up trying to move the chair, and simply relax by going into a deep trance.

All of the above was said as if it were no more than an explanation to the rest of the class. Thus, the subject would hear these suggestions as an explanation to the class but not as commands personally addressed to him. He would develop no counterset to the suggestions and would thus tend to respond to them more readily, since he was already cooperating by slowly rotating his chair. Another important factor was the impending threat of a disabling migraine headache and the undoubtedly strong desire to escape from it in some way, even if that “way” appeared silly to him. Indeed, the entire situation favored the development of a trance state—the long history of migraine, the prodromes of hostility, aggressiveness, and belligerency, his own feeling of helplessness, his unwillingness to experience the projectile vomiting, and his dread of the utterly painful incapacitation that awaited him.

By the time he was facing the audience, he had developed a deep trance. He was peremptorily told that the author was now in charge of him and that all instructions were to be carried out. To this he nodded his head affirmatively. He was instructed to awaken, to speak derogatorily about hypnosis and the author, and to declare that such nonsense as hypnosis made him sick to his stomach. He should then try to prove that statement by going to the window, opening it, and trying to vomit projectilely, but that he would fail completely.

He was aroused, appearing surprised to find himself facing his classmates, made several unpleasant remarks as instructed, and then opened a window overlooking a vacant lot. He apparently did his best to vomit but failed, stating, “By this time I should have lost the lining of my stomach, but I’m beginning to feel better. I always vomit when I am about to have a migraine and I sure had all the warning signs this morning. But if I can’t vomit, perhaps I won’t have it [the migraine].”

This utterance was seized upon by the author to expand the idea that maladies, whether psychogenic or organic, followed definite patterns of some sort, particularly in the field of psychogenic disorders; that a disruption of this pattern could be a most therapeutic measure; and that it often mattered little how small the disruption was, if introduced early enough. After some discussion of this for the class (and as disguised suggestions to him) he was challengingly asked if he thought there was such a thing as hypnosis, and did he dare to volunteer to be a subject.

His reply was most informative: “I just told you it was silly nonsense, but I’m beginning to believe in it and I almost feel that you could hypnotize me. But what I don’t understand is that something has happened to my headache. I knew this morning when I woke up that I was going to have one, and when I came into this classroom I was in my usual, helpless, ugly mood. But now I feel fine.”

The answer given was, “It’s all very simple, and as I explain you will go into a trance, a deep trance, remember everything, and then awaken, knowing that you never need to have another migraine headache. So rouse up!” He awakened from the trance that developed as the above remarks were made and had a total recovery of all events.

Age Progression by Noboru Takaishi, M.D.

A 28-year-old male physician, who had done well in medical school in Japan, began working on a doctoral thesis at the surgery department of a national university that was not his alma mater. He also was working at the hospital where his father was a staff physician.

He started having difficulties with his doctoral thesis. As a consequence, he began to suffer from severe insomnia. He decided to treat his own insomnia by taking prescription sleeping pills (methaqualone), a type which are no longer manufactured in Japan because of their severe side effects. Soon, the young physician became dependent on these pills as well as tolerant of them. He increased the dosage and finally began taking them during the day as well.

His behavior changed dramatically. He became rude and unreliable; his ability to practice surgery became noticeably and severely compromised. There were even several episodes where he collapsed during surgery. He was relieved from all duties at the hospital. His wife left him and returned to her parents’ home where she thought of divorcing him.

He came to my clinic and decided to use hypnosis as part of therapy. After a deep hypnotic trance was induced, I suggested he recall his happy, confident days before the beginning of his doctoral thesis. The recall and re-experiencing of these good times were confirmed by finger signaling.

Using age progression, he was asked to imagine a scene in the future where he was freed from his addiction and felt happy and confident both mentally and physically. These feelings were tied to the feelings he had as a student before he was addicted. He was asked to see the people close to him, his parents, his wife and the staff of the hospital, being so pleased for him and filled with trust for him as they had been in the past. I suggested that he imagine such scenes as vividly as possible.

As a post-hypnotic suggestion, I told him that the experience he had in the hypnotic trance would be firmly fixed in his unconscious mind. It would positively influence his daily activities without conscious awareness. Then the trance was ended.

The next week, he said he had stopped taking the pills. He said he was feeling some confidence and happiness. There were two more sessions using the same principles of building a productive future on productive behaviors and responses in the past.

It is now 25 years since these three sessions. He has had no further problems with drug dependency. He is working actively at the hospital where he did his doctoral thesis, and has replaced his father, who retired, as director.

The work described here is a successful example of what I have called the “in advance rewarding method.” This technique aims to develop the patient’s inner strengths toward a possible and positive future. I developed treatment in this case without knowing about Erickson’s work in pseudo-orientation in time.

Discussion

by Betty Alice Erickson M.S., L.P.C. Dallas, Texas

Dr. Takaishi’s patient did not seem to require the added complexities of a physical detoxification, and he was not initially enthusiastic about treatment. Using the man’s previous experiences as a successful and competent person, Takaishi used trance to guide the man into a realization that his future could have those same components. In 1934, Erickson wrote that the hypnotist “must implant his suggestions in the vast aggregate of mental reactions and patterns accumulated throughout the subject’s lifetime.” Takaishi did just that.

Regression in a hypnotic state helps a patient reestablish patterns of behavior “uninfluenced by subsequently acquired” behaviors (Erickson, 1937). And again, Takaishi did just that.

Good therapy allows the patient to access and build upon personal strengths and resources in productive ways. It is the therapist’s job to structure psychotherapy so the patient is in a position where those currently inaccessible abilities and resources become usable once again.

This patient clearly had the ability to succeed and accomplish his goals. Imagining a future, in a trance state, where goals already have been met and the warm glow of success is felt, can give patients deep-seated feelings of accomplishment and pride. Structuring this future as a post-hypnotic suggestion that didn’t have to enter conscious thinking allowed the patient to reap the benefits of the therapy without having to ascribe the cause to the therapist’s suggestions.

One of the most intriguing aspects of Erickson’s work is its timelessness. Six decades ago, when hypnosis was poorly understood and under-used in the psychotherapeutic world, he was writing about the principles that Takaishi employed in his work 35 years later. These techniques are as applicable and powerful today as they were when Erickson first wrote about them and when Takaishi used them. Takaishi did good therapy, with creativity and intelligence.

The opportunity to reexamine effectiveness after twenty-five years is rare. The absence of a relapse speaks for the effectiveness and the appropriateness of the therapy used. With his discovery that Erickson had written about this same technique years previously, Takaishi can now compare and enhance his own abilities just as students of the “modern” arms of psychotherapy, of brief, cognitive, narrative, and solution-focused, can compare and enhance their own understandings by studying Erickson’s original works.

Erickson rarely claimed credit for “inventing” a technique. He understood that the tenets of human behavior have been known and studied for centuries. Part of his gift to the psychotherapeutic world was his abil­ity to encapsulate commonalties in productive methodologies and to write about and teach them in under­standable and replicable ways.

References:

Erickson, M. H. (1934). “A brief sur­vey of hypnotism.” Medical Record, 140, 609-613.

Erickson, M. H. (1937). Development of apparent unconsciousness dur­ing hypnotic reliving of a trau­matic experience. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 38, 1282-1288.

Enhancing Performance in Sports, Intellectual Activities, and Everyday Life Ronald A. Havens & Catherine Walters

Estimated reading time: 15 minutes, 25 seconds.

Our purpose in this chapter is to describe a hypnotic technique we use to help our clients enhance their performance in almost any enterprise. Our approach remains fairly constant no matter what area of life a person wishes to improve. Whether a client wants to lower his or her golf score, become a better salesperson, develop new interpersonal skills, or simply feel better emotionally, we conduct our sessions in essentially the same manner.

ENHANCING FUTURE PERFORMANCE

After an initial diagnostic interview to determine why the person is there and what he or she wants to accomplish, we use hypnosis to clarify the thoughts, sensations, emotions, and behaviors that individual associates with the desired outcome. During this trance session, the client is instructed to imagine how it will feel to accomplish the desired goal and to examine all of the elements of this imagined situation, including the events that led up to it. This utilization of the individual’s own prior experiential learnings and understandings to establish the treatment outcome ensures that the particular objectives, personality, and background of that person are taken into account and that the prescribed changes truly suit the activity under consideration.

On the other hand, the client’s reservoir of experiential learnings and understandings is not the only possible source of guidance at this point. Relevant information from the professional literature also may be incorporated into the hypnotic suggestion process if necessary. For example, an ever-growing body of research consistently shows that success in virtually every endeavor, including everyday life, depends on an optimistic attitude and a positive sense of self-efficacy (e.g., Taylor, 1989; Maddi & Kosaba, 1984). Accordingly, we routinely include suggestions regarding these attitudes as the person develops the imagined experience of a successful outcome.

We also routinely include suggestions designed to promote a condition of highly focused attention.  Obviously, one must focus one’s attention on an activity to perform it with any degree of success. What is less obvious, and less widely known, is that a particular state of highly focused attention is commonly associated with exceptional performances in virtually any area. For example, Gallwey (1974) taught tennis and golf players to enter into a state of “relaxed concentration” to improve their game. Lozanov (1978) found that students could learn a foreign language more efficiently in a similar state that he called “concert  pseudopassiveness,” and Gilligan (1987) attributed the “controlled spontaneity” frequently observed in the performances of professional musicians, athletes, and psychotherapists to this condition of absorbed attention. Zeig (1985) described the way in which Milton Erickson reportedly predicted the winners of a track meet. He would choose those who were “concentrating and focusing.” Race car drivers refer to this state as “streaming” and athletes in general talk about being “on” or “in the zone.” Given the similarity of this experience to the absorbed attention typical of a hypnotic state, it is natural and useful to incorporate a description of it as a desirable outcome of therapy for most clients.

Furthermore, individual activities, such as target shooting, require a narrow internal focus of attention for peak performance (Maxeiner, 1987), whereas team sports demand a more diffuse and external focus (Nettleton, 1986). When such information is available for the pursuit being considered, it is added to the client’s own understandings via the suggestions we offer regarding the goal state.

The specific steps involved in this intervention are as follows:

Conduct a trance induction or any other procedure designed to stabilize and redirect the client’s attention inward. Ideally, the person will be in a receptive, passively observant frame of mind before the therapist proceeds to the next Explain to the person that in the same way that it is possible to remember and relive a past experience, it also is possible to use imagination to “remember” an event that has not yet happened. Quickly add that the person can, for example,  “remember”  what it will feel like when the person realizes that he or she accomplished whatever it was that brought the  person  to  you  in  the first place. Indicate that the client already knows how it will feel to do so and suggest that they he or she pay attention to those feelings and sensations now. While he or she is locating and becoming familiar with how it feels to succeed, suggestions for different aspects of the experience can be provided, such as a sense of satisfaction, well being, or excitement. After the client begins to identify and experience the emotions and sensations associated with accomplishing the desired goal, the experience is expanded and clarified, one sensory pathway at a time. Details about that future situation are gradually filled in by asking the person to pay attention to physical sensations, sounds, and sights. Eventually the person is asked to take cognizance of where he or she is, who else is there, what the date is, and so on. As the person vividly imagines being in that future situation, happy and satisfied with a successful outcome, he or she is asked to “remember” the actual experience of succeeding. This step can be omitted if the goal is a change in emotional or psychological state, because it is often difficult to identify exactly when such changes occur, but if the objective is enhanced performance of some specific mental or physical activity, then it is a useful part of the process. The client  has  an  opportunity  to  “experience” (and thus rehearse) how it feels to perform in a successful  manner, and the therapist has an opportunity  to  include  suggestions for particular actions or states of mind that  are  known  to  enhance performance in that endeavor. For example, this is an appropriate time to suggest  that  the client  “remember”  how it  felt to be effortlessly focused and undistracted,  to  be sure of  himself or herself and yet amazed by his or her own abilities. This alsois an appropriate time to suggest that the client examine things about the situation that seemed to make it easier to perform so well, that is, to become aware of any changes in attitude or approach that apparently helped to create a positive outcome. The next step is to ask the client to remember, from that future vantage point, some of the significant events that  took  place along the path leading from now, sitting in your office, to the desired result. These events are  mentally  “reviewed”  to  “remind” the person about what led to  the hoped-for  end  product  and  to set the stage for their eventual  occurrence,  but there  is no  need for the events to be reviewed in sequential order, nor is it necessary for the client to understand how those happenings  contributed to that conclusion.  In fact, it is best if the client views them as a selection of unrelated events that simply pop into the mind. Throughout the entire process, the client is encouraged to wait for different aspects of the experience simply to emerge or appear and not to create them on purpose. Even if what springs to mind does not make sense or seem relevant, as is often the case, the person is asked to observe passively and allow things to unfold in whatever manner they do without interfering  or  attempting  to alter them. Finally, as the trance and the session are brought to a close, the client is told to forget about the things that have occurred and to allow the unconscious mind to assume responsibility for turning these imagined events into Although some clients are able consciously and intentionally to follow their own “unconscious” advice, others tend to alter matters in a way that merely perpetuates previous patterns of action and reaction. Thus, whenever possible, it is desirable to elicit amnesia for these experiences and to offer a posthypnotic suggestion for their eventual accomplishment in a seemingly spontaneous manner. When this suggestion is successful, clients engage in the activities that lead to the desired outcome without realizing that there is a method to it. Looking back on it, they typically report, “One thing just led to another.”Although we would love to take credit for inventing this approach, the basic rationale and structure of the technique presented here were derived directly from the work of Milton Erickson.

ERICKSON’S APPROACH

In our book on Hypnotherapy for Health, Harmony, and Peak Performance (Walters & Havens, 1993), we point out that Erickson was less concerned with what people were doing wrong in the present than with getting them to do things right in the future. He encouraged the development of attitudes and behaviors that would eventually result in successful adjustment and emotional well-being. He elicited the positive attitudes, states of mind, and behaviors that he knew would allow his clients to accomplish their goals, whether those goals involved enhanced athletic performance, academic performance, or performance in everyday life. Erickson concentrated on what people could do, and he devised an impressive array of techniques to help them build better futures for themselves. He used direct and indirect hypnotic suggestions, implications, metaphorical anecdotes, and straightforward behavioral assignments to get people to begin thinking and behaving in healthier, more productive ways. The approach outlined here is based on one of these many techniques, a technique Erickson called “pseudo-orientation in time” (Erickson, 1954).

Because Erickson usually devised a unique therapeutic intervention to suit the needs and personality of each unique person, it may seem some­ what presumptuous to reduce his approach to one specific strategy to be used with a broad range of problems. Nonetheless, we believe that it is appropriate to do so. Few practitioners can emulate Erickson’s creativity or wisdom and, luckily, most of the time it is not necessary to do so. We propose that it is possible, instead, to use his pseudo-orientation-in-time technique with virtually every client because it is the one intervention that captures the underlying essence of Erickson’s seemingly endless list of strategies. By concentrating on one particularly powerful Ericksonian hypnotherapeutic approach, it is possible to condense his insights and genius into a manageable procedure.

Pseudo-orientation in time is one of the few techniques Erickson used with more than one patient, and it is the only one of his techniques that seems to be useful for almost any presenting problem. In his original publication on the topic, Erickson (1954) described his use of this technique with five very different patients, all of whom enjoyed successful outcomes. Each patient eventually engaged in the activity he or she had foreseen in the age-progression visualizations, and each did so with no recognition that he or she was following his or her own self-generated prescription for success.

In another publication (Erickson & Rossi, 1977), Erickson even described using this approach on himself to prepare for the unpleasant situations he realized he would eventually encounter as a physician. He projected himself into an imagined future, figured out how to cope with the unfairness and unpleasantness of the events he was likely to face in his practice, and emerged from his reverie ready to continue with his career. Given the nature of that career, it is safe to conclude that his intervention worked.

Like most of Erickson’s interventions, the pseudo-orientation-in-time approach focuses the client and the therapist fully and solely on the future. In addition, because it is centered around the client’s self-generated imagined experience of accomplishing the desired objective, this technique relies heavily on the client’s own “unconscious” learnings and observations to define both the goal state and the steps required to arrive at that goal. Once the desired future and the steps to that future are identified, then the client is instructed to forget about it and to allow this outcome to unfold automatically or “unconsciously.” No other strategy seems to capture the essence of Erickson’s approach more directly or completely, and no other approach seems to be more consistently successful.

CASE EXAMPLE

Jason, a 17-year-old member of a local high-school track team, consulted our office to improve his performance in the 1,600-meter race. His coach suggested that he seek professional help because he repeatedly lost races that, theoretically, he should have won. During practices, his lap times were consistently fast. During actual competition, however, he was unable to maintain a fast pace throughout a race.  He started and finished fast, but always faded during the middle laps and lost too much ground to catch up and win. As Jason described it, he was always fired up during the first third of the race, discouraged and  ready  to  quit during the middle third, and then would become angry and try to  do his best  again  for the final third of the way.

The intervention in this case was quite simple and brief. Following an induction process, Jason was asked to imagine himself talking to his coach after winning an upcoming race. He was able to do this with little trouble, and he was also able to offer a verbatim account of his conversation with the coach about that race. He was then asked to remember what was different about the  way he had thought  about the various parts  of the race and to tell his unconscious to make sure that  these  new thoughts arose during the next track  meet.  Finally, he was told to wake up without remembering much, if any, of the session. He left with a promise to return the following week and report what happened.

Jason later said that he had won his next race, although he did not know why. As he described it, he was really fired up during the first half of the race, and by the second half was getting angry and determined, just as he always did. It was immediately obvious that he had stopped split­ ting the race into thirds. He had solved the problem of becoming discouraged and tired during the middle third of the race by simply eliminating it from his thoughts. Interestingly, this was exactly what he had said to his coach during his imagined winning experience.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Peak performance in any field is a function of multiple variables, including attitudes, emotions, innate talents, and practice. People who succeed have a clear idea of an attainable goal. They also know what they must do to accomplish that goal, and they have the willingness or desire to do it. Finally, they have optimistic expectations that they can and will reach their objective; they trust themselves and know how to get out of their own way. The techniques presented here are designed to provide these ingredients of peak performance to those who want and/or need them.

Hypnotic trance allows people to establish attainable goals. During trance conscious concerns, inhibitions, misunderstandings, fantasies, or wishful thinking do not interfere with the construction of a viable outcome. People are able to review the potential disadvantages or advantages of various goals and actions in a detached and careful fashion. The end product springs into awareness before it can be censored or modified by ordinary conscious considerations. Consequently, the imagined future is almost invariably compatible with the person’s needs and capacities.

This also is the case when trance is used to envision a series of actions or events that will lead to that imagined outcome. When conscious biases are bypassed, the end product is a set of activities, insights, or decisions that are quite appropriate for that individual and that lead almost inexorably to the desired outcome. Hypnotherapists merely help people discover what they already knew about their own abilities and potentials but were unable or unwilling to acknowledge.

People seek help from professionals because they want something different, something better, to occur. They want to change their thoughts, their feelings, their actions, and their lives, but those changes will take place only after they can envision them as happening in the future. Our vision of the future is a road map, a program, a guiding principle that modifies our present actions in ways that lead us toward that envisioned outcome. To explain his technique of pseudo-orientation in time, Erickson (1954) said, “Deeds are the offspring of hope and expectancy” (p. 261). When we expect more of the same, that is what our deeds create. But when we can imagine a better future so clearly that it actually seems possible, then we begin to think and behave in ways that lead us there.

Many different techniques can be used to attain enhanced performance, but few are as straightforward or as likely to meet the unique needs and capacities of each individual as the approach presented here. If you want to help others respond in ways that promote a better future, why not follow Erickson’s lead? Imagine the changes your clients will experience, first in their imaginations, then in their lives. Once you have envisioned such outcomes, you will find this approach hard to resist.

Points to Remember

Focus on what will make things go right in the future. Not on what made things go wrong in the past. Remember that people need to know where they are going in order to get there.  Help them develop a clear picture of a successful outcome. Always assume that the client knows at some level what goals and strategies are most appropriate and useful, but also remember to mention relevant information from the research. Encourage the client to enter imagined future situations by thinking about how it will feel to succeed rather than about what to do. After the client has a clear picture of a successful outcome and re­ views the events that led to to it, suggest that the unconscious mind can now accomplish these things and that the conscious mind can forget all about them.

References

Erickson, M. H. (1954). Pseudo-orientation in time as a hypnotherapeutic procedure. journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 261-283.

Erickson, M. H., & Rossi, E. (1977). Autohypnotic experiences of Milton H. Erick­ son. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 20, 36-54.

Gallwey, W. T. (1974). 1beginner game of tennis. New York: Random House.

Gilligan, S. (1987). Therapeutic trances: The cooperation principle in Ericksonian hypno­therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Lozanov, G. (1978). Suggestology and outlines of suggestability. New York: Gordon & Breach.

Maddi, S., & Kosaba, S. (1984). The hardy executive: Health under stress. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Erwin.

Maxeiner, J. (1987). Concentration and distribution of attention in sport. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 18, 247-255.

Nettleton, B. (1986). Flexibility of attention and elite athletes’ performance in “fast­ ball games.” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 991-994.

Taylor, S. E. (1989). Positive illusions. New York: Basic Books.

Walters, C., & Havens, R. A. (1993). Hypnotherapy for health, harmony, and peak performance: Expanding the goals of psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Zeig, J. (1985). Experiencing Erickson: An introduction to the man and his work. New York: Brunner/Mazel.