Posts Tagged ‘Family Therapy’

By Carme Timoneda-Gallart, PhD Estimated reading time: 3 minutes, 47 seconds. 

Tommy, eight years old, performed poorly at school, though a psychologist deemed him gifted. Using metaphor, the educator helps Tommy find his own resources to control impulsive behavior:

“Well, Tommy, now I’m going to ask to you some questions, Ok?”. Tommy nodded, moving a little on his chair. “Tommy, which number is double 15?” Tommy said automatically, without thinking, “20”. I said: “Tommy, sometimes, our brain receives a lot of lightning and it is so overwhelmed that it has to warn us. But how? Because it is our body’s boss, sometimes it can cause headaches, make us answer a question without thinking.” Tommy said: “Yes, my teacher is always complaining! ‘Tommy you always answer without thinking. You must think and then answer’” He looked nervous.

Then, I said: “I’d like to tell you a story about two horses. Once upon a time there were two nice black horses. One, called ‘Hasty’, was always jumping and shouting. He seemed a very nervous horse and he would run and run without knowing where he went.

When his trainer ordered him to be still, or walk gracefully, he didn’t obey, just jumped and ran.

The other horse was called “Elegant”. He was very peaceful and quiet. He also liked to run, and sometimes he jumped the fence, but when his trainer ordered him to walk calmly and grace- fully, he always did it.

Tommy, now we are going “to be Hasty” and to do things like him.” Tommy and I stood up and jumped around the room. Tommy even crashed against the table and the door.

Then I said: “Tommy, look, now we are going to be Elegant”. Suddenly, Tommy started walking calmly and gracefully. I congratulated him, saying he acted very much like Elegant. Tommy smiled.

“Tommy, now we’re going to sit down and I’m going to ask you a question. But before answering the question, you will put your hand up. Then, I will ask you if you want to answer like Elegant or like Hasty. After choosing which one, you may answer the question. OK?” Tommy nodded, liking the new game. I asked: “Tommy, which number is double 15?” Tommy raised his arm, closed his lips firmly, and looked up. A few seconds later, he said that he’d like to answer like Hasty. I nodded. He said: “Double 15… double 15… is 30!” I said: “Great job!” He smiled saying that he usually acted like Hasty but prefers Elegant.”

One of our first steps was constructed around the metaphor that the brain receives a lot of ‘lightning’ and is severely overwhelmed. We then use another metaphor as a control mechanism for the impulsive behavior (answering without thinking, a very common behavior in children with learning problems). This metaphor concludes with a seeming alternative: we ask the child to first choose which horse he would like to be and, only afterwards, answer the question. Having to make a choice in this fashion makes it impossible for him to continue to answer before thinking.

If child therapy is a work of art, then the educator’s work has some secrets. The first is to establish an emotional connection between the child and the therapist. Although necessary, this rapport is often absent A child may be short and naïve, but he is a person, and as such has an impressive array of resources. If the educator sees a  child as short of material, the artist will lose the opportunity to effect a necessary change in the child’s life.

The second secret is that children understand perfectly what they do but not why and how to cope with their behavior. The artist, knowing the quality of the child’s material, demonstrates to him the uses of different parts of the work of art that he is; then, s/he lets the child’s imagination construct, patiently and naturally, a better emotional tool or a new mental procedure.

How many times do adults waste their energy telling the child why a behavior is inappropriate, then trying to convince him to behave in a more suitable manner? When they don’t show the child a way to change, a wall of resistance is being erected.

Nowadays, Tommy can always play with Elegant or Hasty, riding them firmly and commandingly. He normally behaves like Elegant even when he professes to be riding Hasty.

Children have more imagination than there are stars in the sky. Metaphor allows them to discover a new world of emotions in which they feel secure and behave in new, exciting ways. Finally, the shape of the work of art that they are will be balanced, and precious.

by Hideo Tsugawa Estimated reading time: 7 minutes, 34 seconds.

Editor’s Note: The following is a summary and English translation of an award-winning article published in Japan: Tsuawa. (2000). Play as therapeutic metaphors: Ericksonian play therapy. The Japanese Journal of Brief Psychotherapy, 9, 18-38.

 “Why are children born? They might be born to play. They might be born to romp,” these words are found in Ryojinhisho, an old Japanese song book. Throughout history and across varying cultures, childhood and play have been closely associated. During play, children naturally strive to develop solutions to problems. Play facilitates the expression of emotion and the focusing of attention. Even more importantly, play is a metaphorical device producing rich experiences that add to the life and skill of children.

Play therapy is an approach that incorporates these features of play. Axline (1947), the originator of Child-Centered play therapy, presented eight principles of play therapy, one of which requires the therapist to adopt a non-directive attitude. Many schools of play therapy have adopted this non-directive style of interaction. This approach provides children with the experience of behaving freely. For some, non-directive participation is a useful metaphor that brings changes and solutions. But for others, it is not sufficient. For example, children who have experienced trauma or abuse are not likely to initiate their own healing and instead require the direct participation of the therapist (Gil, 1991). While non-directive play is an important experience, this approach is not useful as a metaphor for all problems and symptoms.

Ericksonian approaches to therapy recognize the metaphorical quality of problems and symptoms. In a like manner, the Ericksonian practitioner provides therapeutic experiences in the form of metaphor. Zeig (1992) calls this process “gift-wrapping.” A gift is presented to the client in which the therapist wraps up the goals and solutions. Symbols, anecdotes, tasks, and hypnosis are generally chosen as the “wrapping.” When working with children, play is used as a gift, a wrapping used to present goals or solutions.

Respect for individuality is another key principal in the Ericksonian approach. Ericksonian therapists tailor their interactions in accord with the unique situation of the client or family. When therapists use tailoring in play therapy, their participation in play becomes more flexible and more effective. An example of an Ericksonian approach to play therapy is illustrated in the following case example.

Naomi, a seven-year-old girl, was brought to therapy by her mother. Her mother explained, “She can not attend school because she is unable t0 separate from me.” Naomi was invited to play and during the following conversation she indicated that she feared arriving to school late and having her class mates stare at her. Whenever Naomi was delayed, she would enter the classroom bent down behind her friends. The initial intervention consisted of an indirect suggestion to her mother to take Naomi to school early. In a follow-up phone conversation, her mother reported, “For the rest of the spring semester, l have taken her to school early in the morning and she goes to school easily.” During the next session, the therapist told Naomi a story about a boy who feared being stared at while riding the bus. As a solution, the boy was instructed by his doctor to walk onto the bus backwards. By presenting this story, the therapist suggested an understanding of her predicament. At the same time, the story implied change is possible. Next the therapist asked, “Naomi, have you had the experience of walking into your classroom backwards?” Naomi was surprised; her expression showed that she noticed something. All the chairs in the playroom were arranged like her classroom with stuffed dolls as her classmates. Her mother and the therapist also sat in the chairs as classmates.

So she tried to go into the playroom/classroom backwards, after which she said, “No problem!” The therapist reinforced her   progress stating, “Great!  But don’t you feel a little fear?” to which she replied, “No, i’m okay.” The therapist then asked solution-focused questions (de Shazcr, 1985) such as, “How were you able t0 do so well? How did you cope with the fear?” She answered, “I watched my feet only.” The playroom was compared to her classroom and a game of entering the classroom was begun. Naomi, her mother and the therapist played going into the classroom using various strange and unique techniques such as coming in with a skip, while spinning, imitating a fashion model, imitating a gorilla, watching only her nose, and while doing a somersault. This produced laughter and suggested to Naomi the possibility of distraction (Erickson & Rossi, 1976). This play provided the opportunity to practice catering the classroom. The purpose of this type of rehearsal is to reduce anxiety and tension in the problem situation. Because it was done as play, it yielded superior results. During a follow-up meeting, Naomi reported, “Now when I go into class room, I laugh unconsciously. Because I remember the games for how to go into the classroom.”

However, three days before the next appointment, her mother called the center in a distressed state of mind. Naomi  had  been  attending school successfully but after being lectured by her grandmother for her previous absences, Naomi developed the hallucination that a bug was crawling into her ear. By the next morning, she felt that insects went inside her body and refused to go to school. The therapist was encouraged by the fact that she had not had any previous episodes of hallucination and that it occurred in response to situational factors (i.e., the interaction with grandmother). Furthermore, Naomi thought her experience was strange, thus indicating that she had the mental facility from which to judge the appropriateness of experience. Because Naomi was ashamed to talk to the therapist about the insects, the therapist chose not to take the problem up directly. Zeig (1980) has suggested the amount of indirection is directly proportional to the perceived amount of resistance. Playing with a large white ball, the therapist told stories of cold  hands and fingers becoming numb. These stories suggested that humans  have the ability to change sensations. A competition was begun to see who could experience the most numbness. The hypnotic induction was accomplished naturally, through play. The hypnotic anesthesia was also introduced using a naturalistic technique (Erickson, 1958). Later, during a phone conversation, her mother told the therapist, “Naomi hasn’t been talking about insects since the last session. She seems to have forgotten about it. I have kept your instruction and have said nothing to make her remember it.” During her fourth and final visit, Naomi confirmed that she no longer had concerns about  going to school. The therapist validated this idea by indicating that there was no longer a problem and the therapy was ended. 

The concept of play is wide and ambiguous. It contains elements such as games, playing with toys, creative activities, and sports. Caillois (1958) systematically classified play using four major principles: competition, chance or luck, imitation and giddi­ness. However, these classifications define play only in terms of external behavior. In contrast, Henriot(1973) views play not as activity but as states of consciousness. From this perspective, it is the experience of play that determines its significance. For example, even when presented with fascinating toys, a child may not want to play. When it is understood that play is determined by the subject’s consciousness, the importance of the therapist’s participation is more apparent. The experiential possibilities for play are not fixed but can be changed by including the child  in play constructed by the therapist.

In the clinical setting, it is important to recognize that the reality of play is derived in part from the interaction between memory and feelings, but equally as important, includes the interaction of therapist and client.

When the therapeutic approach is based on this understanding, play therapy is no longer limited to the use of a playroom or toys. While these can lead to play, it is important to construct therapy as play through human interaction. This allows the child to develop a practical understanding of pertinent situational factors and his or her role in relation to others. While it can be said that play therapy is the approach that utilizes the reality of play for therapy, Ericksonian play therapy is the approach that builds on the reality of the child while permitting the therapist the flexibility to provide assistance when and where it is needed.


Axline, V. M. (1947). Play Therapy: The Inner Dynamics of Childhood. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Caillois, R. (1958) Les jeux et les hommes. Paris: Gallimard

de Shazer, S. (1985). Keys to Solution in Brief Therapy. New York: Norton.

Erickson, M. H. (1958) Naturalistic Techniques of hypnosis. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 1, 3-8.

Erickson, M. H., & Rossi, E. (1976). Two-level communication and the micro-dynamics of trance and suggestion. The American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 18, 153-171.

Gil, E. (1991). Healing Power of Play: Working with abused chil­ dren. New York: Guildford.

Henriot, J. (1973) Le jeu. Presses Universitaires de France.

Zeig, J. K. (1980). Teaching Seminar with_ Milton H. Erickson, M.D; New York:.Brunner/Mazel.

Zeig, J. K. (Ed.) (1992). The virtues of our faults: A key concept of Ericksonian psychotherapy.  In pp. 52-269, Evolution of Psychotherapy: The Second Conference. New York: Brunner/MazeI.

Enhancing Performance in Sports, Intellectual Activities, and Everyday Life Ronald A. Havens & Catherine Walters

Estimated reading time: 15 minutes, 25 seconds.

Our purpose in this chapter is to describe a hypnotic technique we use to help our clients enhance their performance in almost any enterprise. Our approach remains fairly constant no matter what area of life a person wishes to improve. Whether a client wants to lower his or her golf score, become a better salesperson, develop new interpersonal skills, or simply feel better emotionally, we conduct our sessions in essentially the same manner.


After an initial diagnostic interview to determine why the person is there and what he or she wants to accomplish, we use hypnosis to clarify the thoughts, sensations, emotions, and behaviors that individual associates with the desired outcome. During this trance session, the client is instructed to imagine how it will feel to accomplish the desired goal and to examine all of the elements of this imagined situation, including the events that led up to it. This utilization of the individual’s own prior experiential learnings and understandings to establish the treatment outcome ensures that the particular objectives, personality, and background of that person are taken into account and that the prescribed changes truly suit the activity under consideration.

On the other hand, the client’s reservoir of experiential learnings and understandings is not the only possible source of guidance at this point. Relevant information from the professional literature also may be incorporated into the hypnotic suggestion process if necessary. For example, an ever-growing body of research consistently shows that success in virtually every endeavor, including everyday life, depends on an optimistic attitude and a positive sense of self-efficacy (e.g., Taylor, 1989; Maddi & Kosaba, 1984). Accordingly, we routinely include suggestions regarding these attitudes as the person develops the imagined experience of a successful outcome.

We also routinely include suggestions designed to promote a condition of highly focused attention.  Obviously, one must focus one’s attention on an activity to perform it with any degree of success. What is less obvious, and less widely known, is that a particular state of highly focused attention is commonly associated with exceptional performances in virtually any area. For example, Gallwey (1974) taught tennis and golf players to enter into a state of “relaxed concentration” to improve their game. Lozanov (1978) found that students could learn a foreign language more efficiently in a similar state that he called “concert  pseudopassiveness,” and Gilligan (1987) attributed the “controlled spontaneity” frequently observed in the performances of professional musicians, athletes, and psychotherapists to this condition of absorbed attention. Zeig (1985) described the way in which Milton Erickson reportedly predicted the winners of a track meet. He would choose those who were “concentrating and focusing.” Race car drivers refer to this state as “streaming” and athletes in general talk about being “on” or “in the zone.” Given the similarity of this experience to the absorbed attention typical of a hypnotic state, it is natural and useful to incorporate a description of it as a desirable outcome of therapy for most clients.

Furthermore, individual activities, such as target shooting, require a narrow internal focus of attention for peak performance (Maxeiner, 1987), whereas team sports demand a more diffuse and external focus (Nettleton, 1986). When such information is available for the pursuit being considered, it is added to the client’s own understandings via the suggestions we offer regarding the goal state.

The specific steps involved in this intervention are as follows:

Conduct a trance induction or any other procedure designed to stabilize and redirect the client’s attention inward. Ideally, the person will be in a receptive, passively observant frame of mind before the therapist proceeds to the next Explain to the person that in the same way that it is possible to remember and relive a past experience, it also is possible to use imagination to “remember” an event that has not yet happened. Quickly add that the person can, for example,  “remember”  what it will feel like when the person realizes that he or she accomplished whatever it was that brought the  person  to  you  in  the first place. Indicate that the client already knows how it will feel to do so and suggest that they he or she pay attention to those feelings and sensations now. While he or she is locating and becoming familiar with how it feels to succeed, suggestions for different aspects of the experience can be provided, such as a sense of satisfaction, well being, or excitement. After the client begins to identify and experience the emotions and sensations associated with accomplishing the desired goal, the experience is expanded and clarified, one sensory pathway at a time. Details about that future situation are gradually filled in by asking the person to pay attention to physical sensations, sounds, and sights. Eventually the person is asked to take cognizance of where he or she is, who else is there, what the date is, and so on. As the person vividly imagines being in that future situation, happy and satisfied with a successful outcome, he or she is asked to “remember” the actual experience of succeeding. This step can be omitted if the goal is a change in emotional or psychological state, because it is often difficult to identify exactly when such changes occur, but if the objective is enhanced performance of some specific mental or physical activity, then it is a useful part of the process. The client  has  an  opportunity  to  “experience” (and thus rehearse) how it feels to perform in a successful  manner, and the therapist has an opportunity  to  include  suggestions for particular actions or states of mind that  are  known  to  enhance performance in that endeavor. For example, this is an appropriate time to suggest  that  the client  “remember”  how it  felt to be effortlessly focused and undistracted,  to  be sure of  himself or herself and yet amazed by his or her own abilities. This alsois an appropriate time to suggest that the client examine things about the situation that seemed to make it easier to perform so well, that is, to become aware of any changes in attitude or approach that apparently helped to create a positive outcome. The next step is to ask the client to remember, from that future vantage point, some of the significant events that  took  place along the path leading from now, sitting in your office, to the desired result. These events are  mentally  “reviewed”  to  “remind” the person about what led to  the hoped-for  end  product  and  to set the stage for their eventual  occurrence,  but there  is no  need for the events to be reviewed in sequential order, nor is it necessary for the client to understand how those happenings  contributed to that conclusion.  In fact, it is best if the client views them as a selection of unrelated events that simply pop into the mind. Throughout the entire process, the client is encouraged to wait for different aspects of the experience simply to emerge or appear and not to create them on purpose. Even if what springs to mind does not make sense or seem relevant, as is often the case, the person is asked to observe passively and allow things to unfold in whatever manner they do without interfering  or  attempting  to alter them. Finally, as the trance and the session are brought to a close, the client is told to forget about the things that have occurred and to allow the unconscious mind to assume responsibility for turning these imagined events into Although some clients are able consciously and intentionally to follow their own “unconscious” advice, others tend to alter matters in a way that merely perpetuates previous patterns of action and reaction. Thus, whenever possible, it is desirable to elicit amnesia for these experiences and to offer a posthypnotic suggestion for their eventual accomplishment in a seemingly spontaneous manner. When this suggestion is successful, clients engage in the activities that lead to the desired outcome without realizing that there is a method to it. Looking back on it, they typically report, “One thing just led to another.”Although we would love to take credit for inventing this approach, the basic rationale and structure of the technique presented here were derived directly from the work of Milton Erickson.


In our book on Hypnotherapy for Health, Harmony, and Peak Performance (Walters & Havens, 1993), we point out that Erickson was less concerned with what people were doing wrong in the present than with getting them to do things right in the future. He encouraged the development of attitudes and behaviors that would eventually result in successful adjustment and emotional well-being. He elicited the positive attitudes, states of mind, and behaviors that he knew would allow his clients to accomplish their goals, whether those goals involved enhanced athletic performance, academic performance, or performance in everyday life. Erickson concentrated on what people could do, and he devised an impressive array of techniques to help them build better futures for themselves. He used direct and indirect hypnotic suggestions, implications, metaphorical anecdotes, and straightforward behavioral assignments to get people to begin thinking and behaving in healthier, more productive ways. The approach outlined here is based on one of these many techniques, a technique Erickson called “pseudo-orientation in time” (Erickson, 1954).

Because Erickson usually devised a unique therapeutic intervention to suit the needs and personality of each unique person, it may seem some­ what presumptuous to reduce his approach to one specific strategy to be used with a broad range of problems. Nonetheless, we believe that it is appropriate to do so. Few practitioners can emulate Erickson’s creativity or wisdom and, luckily, most of the time it is not necessary to do so. We propose that it is possible, instead, to use his pseudo-orientation-in-time technique with virtually every client because it is the one intervention that captures the underlying essence of Erickson’s seemingly endless list of strategies. By concentrating on one particularly powerful Ericksonian hypnotherapeutic approach, it is possible to condense his insights and genius into a manageable procedure.

Pseudo-orientation in time is one of the few techniques Erickson used with more than one patient, and it is the only one of his techniques that seems to be useful for almost any presenting problem. In his original publication on the topic, Erickson (1954) described his use of this technique with five very different patients, all of whom enjoyed successful outcomes. Each patient eventually engaged in the activity he or she had foreseen in the age-progression visualizations, and each did so with no recognition that he or she was following his or her own self-generated prescription for success.

In another publication (Erickson & Rossi, 1977), Erickson even described using this approach on himself to prepare for the unpleasant situations he realized he would eventually encounter as a physician. He projected himself into an imagined future, figured out how to cope with the unfairness and unpleasantness of the events he was likely to face in his practice, and emerged from his reverie ready to continue with his career. Given the nature of that career, it is safe to conclude that his intervention worked.

Like most of Erickson’s interventions, the pseudo-orientation-in-time approach focuses the client and the therapist fully and solely on the future. In addition, because it is centered around the client’s self-generated imagined experience of accomplishing the desired objective, this technique relies heavily on the client’s own “unconscious” learnings and observations to define both the goal state and the steps required to arrive at that goal. Once the desired future and the steps to that future are identified, then the client is instructed to forget about it and to allow this outcome to unfold automatically or “unconsciously.” No other strategy seems to capture the essence of Erickson’s approach more directly or completely, and no other approach seems to be more consistently successful.


Jason, a 17-year-old member of a local high-school track team, consulted our office to improve his performance in the 1,600-meter race. His coach suggested that he seek professional help because he repeatedly lost races that, theoretically, he should have won. During practices, his lap times were consistently fast. During actual competition, however, he was unable to maintain a fast pace throughout a race.  He started and finished fast, but always faded during the middle laps and lost too much ground to catch up and win. As Jason described it, he was always fired up during the first third of the race, discouraged and  ready  to  quit during the middle third, and then would become angry and try to  do his best  again  for the final third of the way.

The intervention in this case was quite simple and brief. Following an induction process, Jason was asked to imagine himself talking to his coach after winning an upcoming race. He was able to do this with little trouble, and he was also able to offer a verbatim account of his conversation with the coach about that race. He was then asked to remember what was different about the  way he had thought  about the various parts  of the race and to tell his unconscious to make sure that  these  new thoughts arose during the next track  meet.  Finally, he was told to wake up without remembering much, if any, of the session. He left with a promise to return the following week and report what happened.

Jason later said that he had won his next race, although he did not know why. As he described it, he was really fired up during the first half of the race, and by the second half was getting angry and determined, just as he always did. It was immediately obvious that he had stopped split­ ting the race into thirds. He had solved the problem of becoming discouraged and tired during the middle third of the race by simply eliminating it from his thoughts. Interestingly, this was exactly what he had said to his coach during his imagined winning experience.


Peak performance in any field is a function of multiple variables, including attitudes, emotions, innate talents, and practice. People who succeed have a clear idea of an attainable goal. They also know what they must do to accomplish that goal, and they have the willingness or desire to do it. Finally, they have optimistic expectations that they can and will reach their objective; they trust themselves and know how to get out of their own way. The techniques presented here are designed to provide these ingredients of peak performance to those who want and/or need them.

Hypnotic trance allows people to establish attainable goals. During trance conscious concerns, inhibitions, misunderstandings, fantasies, or wishful thinking do not interfere with the construction of a viable outcome. People are able to review the potential disadvantages or advantages of various goals and actions in a detached and careful fashion. The end product springs into awareness before it can be censored or modified by ordinary conscious considerations. Consequently, the imagined future is almost invariably compatible with the person’s needs and capacities.

This also is the case when trance is used to envision a series of actions or events that will lead to that imagined outcome. When conscious biases are bypassed, the end product is a set of activities, insights, or decisions that are quite appropriate for that individual and that lead almost inexorably to the desired outcome. Hypnotherapists merely help people discover what they already knew about their own abilities and potentials but were unable or unwilling to acknowledge.

People seek help from professionals because they want something different, something better, to occur. They want to change their thoughts, their feelings, their actions, and their lives, but those changes will take place only after they can envision them as happening in the future. Our vision of the future is a road map, a program, a guiding principle that modifies our present actions in ways that lead us toward that envisioned outcome. To explain his technique of pseudo-orientation in time, Erickson (1954) said, “Deeds are the offspring of hope and expectancy” (p. 261). When we expect more of the same, that is what our deeds create. But when we can imagine a better future so clearly that it actually seems possible, then we begin to think and behave in ways that lead us there.

Many different techniques can be used to attain enhanced performance, but few are as straightforward or as likely to meet the unique needs and capacities of each individual as the approach presented here. If you want to help others respond in ways that promote a better future, why not follow Erickson’s lead? Imagine the changes your clients will experience, first in their imaginations, then in their lives. Once you have envisioned such outcomes, you will find this approach hard to resist.

Points to Remember

Focus on what will make things go right in the future. Not on what made things go wrong in the past. Remember that people need to know where they are going in order to get there.  Help them develop a clear picture of a successful outcome. Always assume that the client knows at some level what goals and strategies are most appropriate and useful, but also remember to mention relevant information from the research. Encourage the client to enter imagined future situations by thinking about how it will feel to succeed rather than about what to do. After the client has a clear picture of a successful outcome and re­ views the events that led to to it, suggest that the unconscious mind can now accomplish these things and that the conscious mind can forget all about them.


Erickson, M. H. (1954). Pseudo-orientation in time as a hypnotherapeutic procedure. journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 2, 261-283.

Erickson, M. H., & Rossi, E. (1977). Autohypnotic experiences of Milton H. Erick­ son. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 20, 36-54.

Gallwey, W. T. (1974). 1beginner game of tennis. New York: Random House.

Gilligan, S. (1987). Therapeutic trances: The cooperation principle in Ericksonian hypno­therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Lozanov, G. (1978). Suggestology and outlines of suggestability. New York: Gordon & Breach.

Maddi, S., & Kosaba, S. (1984). The hardy executive: Health under stress. Homewood, IL: Dow Jones-Erwin.

Maxeiner, J. (1987). Concentration and distribution of attention in sport. International Journal of Sports Psychology, 18, 247-255.

Nettleton, B. (1986). Flexibility of attention and elite athletes’ performance in “fast­ ball games.” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 63, 991-994.

Taylor, S. E. (1989). Positive illusions. New York: Basic Books.

Walters, C., & Havens, R. A. (1993). Hypnotherapy for health, harmony, and peak performance: Expanding the goals of psychotherapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Zeig, J. (1985). Experiencing Erickson: An introduction to the man and his work. New York: Brunner/Mazel.